Toothpaste is available in paste, gel or powder form. Despite the many toothpastes that exist, there are some ingredients common to most varieties. These include: Abrasive agents; Scratchy materials, including calcium carbonate and silicates, help remove food, bacteria, and some stains from teeth. Flavoring; Artificial sweeteners, including saccharin, are often added to improve taste. Humectants for moisture retention: Paste and gels formulations often contain substances like glycerol to prevent paste from drying out. Thickeners: Agents that add thickness to the toothpaste, including gums and gooey molecules found in some seaweeds help achieve and maintain proper toothpaste texture. Detergents: the suds you see when brushing, these are created from detergents like sodium lauryl sulfate.
Dr. James L. Johnson